Biographies A-Z
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
Events A-Z
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
General A-Z
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
Places A-Z
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
World History
   Biographies
   Chronology
   Events
   General
   Places
Subjects
   Arts
   Astronomy
   Battles
   Births
   Cinema
   Civil War
   Communist
   Constitutions
   Coup
   Deaths
   Democrat
   Diplomacy
   Economy
   Government
   Hanover
   Independence
   Invasion
   Labour
   Literature
   Military
   Monarchy
   Music
   NAZI
   Normans
   Nuclear
   Plantagenet
   Politics
   Reform
   Religion
   Republic
   Revolution
   Roman
   Rule
   Science
   Socialist
   Sport
   Stuart
   Succession
   Tudor
   Vikings
   Warfare
General
Franco Prussian War
German Confederation
Government
House Bismarck Schonhausen
Military
Prussia Government
Reich, 1st
Reich, 2nd
Roman Catholic Church
Russia Turkey War
Seven Weeks War
Events
Abdication
Alliance
Ambassador
Armament
Arrest
Battle of Langensalza
Battle of Sedan
Birth
Budget
Capture of Frankfurt
Capture of Hanover
Capture of Hesse Kassel
Capture of Holstein
Capture of Nassau
Capture of Schleswig
Catholic Centre Party
Catholic Department
Centre Party
Chancellor
Conditions February
Conference of Berlin
Conference of London
Conference of Vienna
Congress of Berlin
Constitution
Convention
Declaration of War
Defeat
Delegate
Deputy Secretary of State
Deutsches Reich
Diet of Frankfurt
Diet of Magdeburg
Diplomacy
Dismissal
Economy
Education
Election
Erfurt Parliament
German Confederation
Government
Invasion of France
Invasion of Hanover
Invasion of Hesse
Invasion of Holstein
Invasion of Saxony
Kanzelparagraph
Kulturkampf
Legislation
Marriage
May Laws
Minister
Mobilization
North German Confederation
Peace
Peerage
Plot
Press Decree
Publication
Reform
Reichstag
Roman Catholic Church
Rule of Alsace
Rule of Alsace Lorraine
Rule of Cameroons
Rule of Frankfurt
Rule of Hanover
Rule of Heligoland
Rule of Hesse
Rule of Holstein
Rule of Lorraine
Rule of Nassau
Rule of New Guinea
Rule of Nigeria
Rule of Schleswig
Rule of Schleswig Holstein
Rule of Silesia
SDP
Siege of Paris
Speech
Strafgesetzbuch
Succession
Treaty of Alliance
Treaty of Berlin
Treaty of Frankfurt
Treaty of Gastein
Treaty of Mediterranean
Treaty of Prague
Treaty of Reinsurance
Treaty of San Stefano
Unification
Union Customs
Zollverein
Places
Alexanderovo
Alsace
Alvensleben
Baden Baden
Bad Kissingen
Bavaria
Berlin
Biarritz
Erfurt
Frankfurt
Gastein
Geestmunde
Hanover
Heligoland
Hesse
Hesse Kassel
Holstein
Langensalza
London
Lorraine
Magdeburg
Nassau
Nikolsburg
Paris
Prague
Sadowa
Saxony
Schleswig
Schleswig Holst
Sedan
Silesia
Sleswick
St Petersburg
Vienna
Wurttemberg

The World History Database

The World History Database

Otto Furst von Bismarck-Schonhausen
History of Germany


1815
Birth
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Oct 1st Birth of Otto Furst von Bismarck
1847
Diet of Magdeburg
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Called on by the Magdeburg estate to represent it at the United Diet
1847
Election
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Bismarck is elected to the Vereinigter Landtag
1847
Marriage
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Bismarck marries Johanna von Puttkamer
1847
Speech
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Makes maiden speech outraging the Assembly by his reactionary views
1849
Election
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Elected Member of the Erfurt Parliament, a Prussian representitive
  Bismarck is elected to the Landtag
1849
Erfurt Parliament
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Appointed one of Prussia's representatives at the Erfurt Parliament, an assembly of German states that meets to discuss plans for union, but only in order to oppose that body's proposals more effectively
  The Erfurt Parliament fails to bring about unification because of the opposition of Prussia & Austria
1849
Unification
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Appointed one of Prussia's representatives at the Erfurt Parliament, an assembly of German states that meets to discuss plans for union, but only in order to oppose that body's proposals more effectively
  The Erfurt Parliament discusses German unification but Bismarck is opposed
  The Erfurt Parliament fails to bring about unification because of the opposition of Prussia & Austria
  Bismarck opposes the unification of Germany arguing Prussia would lose its independence in the process
1851
Delegate
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Frederick William appoints Bismarck as Prussia's envoy to the Diet of the German Confederation in Frankfurt
1852
Diet of Frankfurt
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Becomes convinced that Prussia would have to ally itself with other German states in order to countervail Austria's growing influence, accepts of the notion of a united German nation
  Frederick William appoints Bismarck as Prussia's envoy to the Diet of the German Confederation in Frankfurt
1852
Unification
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Becomes convinced that Prussia would have to ally itself with other German states in order to countervail Austria's growing influence, accepts of the notion of a united German nation
1855
Conference of Vienna
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Remains neutral hoping to win Russian friendship at a later date
1859
Ambassador
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  William takes over the Government of Prussia as Regent, he replaces Bismarck as Envoy in Frankfurt and makes Bismarck Prussia's Ambassador to the Russian Empire
1859
Reichstag
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 May 10th The Liberals have a majority in the Landtag & William dissolves it
1862
Ambassador
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Appointed Ambassador to France
1862
Diplomacy
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Meets Disraeli & plays the role of a future Premier
  Meets Napolean who sounds Bismarck out on a possible Alliance betwen Germany & France
  Outlines his general policy for the next 10 years for army reform & German unification
1862
Reform
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Sep 19th The Landtag refuses to carry out reforms of the Army
1862
Abdication
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Sep 21st Persuades William not to abdicate & ends the Constitutional Crisis
 Sep 21st Promises to manage Parliament & put through reforms in defiance of Parliament
1862
Budget
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Sep 21st Saves the King from the Liberals in the House of Deputies over army expansion
1862
Government
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Sep 21st Promises to form a Government & put through reforms in defiance of Parliament
1862
Minister
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Sep 21st Appointed Minister President of Prussia
1862
Budget
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Sep 30th Asks the Landtag to increase the Army Budget
 Sep 30th Says great issues of the day will be decided by "iron & blood"
1863
Convention
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Renewal of friendship with Russia
1863
Election
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  A liberal coalition led by the Progressive Party, Fortschrittspartei, wins 2/3 of the votes to the House of Deputies
  Bismarck retains power because he had the support of Wilhelm who fears a liberal ministry
1863
Press Decree
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Bismarck issues an edict restricting the freedom of the press
 June 1st Bans all publications intended to bring the crown, state or Church into disrepute
1863
Election
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Oct Bismarck's supporters do poorly in the elections in which a liberal coalition (whose primary member was the Progress Party) win over two-thirds of the seats in the House
 Oct The House makes repeated calls to the King to dismiss Bismarck, but the King supports him as he feared that if he dismissed him, a liberal ministry would follow
1863
Alliance
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Nov 28th Allies with Austria after declaration of Danish union over Schleswig-Holstein
1863
Constitution
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Nov 28th The House of Deputies passes a resolution declaring that it could no longer come to terms with Bismarck, the King dissolves the Diet, accusing it of trying to obtain unConstitutional control over the ministry
 Nov 28th Allies with Austria after the Danish King declares unification with Schleswig-Holst
1863
Rule of Schleswig Holstein
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Nov 28th Allies with Austria after declaration of Danish unity over Schleswig-Holstei
1864
Invasion of Holstein
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Prussia & Austria invade Holstein & Lauenburg
1865
Alliance
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Schleswig Holstein swears allegiance to Prussia & joins the Prussian armed forces
1865
Conditions February
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Schleswig Holstein swears allegiance to Prussia & joins the Prussian armed forces
  Under the "February Conditions" Schleswig & Holstein enter the Zollverein
1865
Peerage
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Created Graf von Bismarck-Schonhausen
1865
Unification
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Under the "February Conditions" Prussian troops garrison a Confederate fortress
  Under the "February Conditions" Schleswig & Holstein enter the Zollverein
1865
Zollverein
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Under the "February Conditions" Schleswig & Holstein enter the Zollverein
1865
Rule of Holstein
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Aug 20th Bismarck induces Austria to agree to the Gastein Convention, under this agreement Prussia receives Schleswig, while Austria receives Holstein
1865
Rule of Schleswig
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Aug 20th Bismarck induces Austria to agree to the Gastein Convention, under this agreement Prussia receives Schleswig, while Austria receives Holstein
1865
Treaty of Gastein
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Aug 20th Bismarck induces Austria to agree to the Gastein Convention, under this agreement Prussia receives Schleswig, while Austria receives Holstein
 Aug 20th Uses the treaty to isolate Austria from the German states
1865
Diplomacy
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Oct 4th Visits Napoleon III in Biarritz
 Oct 4th Makes a vague promise to France of some Belgian French speaking land
 Oct 4th Persuades France to be neutral in the conflict with Austria over Schleswig & Holstein
1866
Budget
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  The new, largely conservative House is on much better terms with Bismarck than previous bodies; at the Minister-President's request, it retroactively approved the budgets of the past four years, which had been implemented without parliamentary conse
  Admits that the budget is unConstitutional in a bid to pacify the Liberals
  Raises a budget for the 1st time since 1862
1866
Capture of Frankfurt
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Prussia annexes Schleswig, Holstein, Frankfurt, Hanover, Hesse-Kassel, and Nassau; and Austria promised not to intervene in German affairs
1866
Capture of Hanover
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Prussia annexes Schleswig, Holstein, Frankfurt, Hanover, Hesse-Kassel, and Nassau; and Austria promised not to intervene in German affairs
1866
Capture of Hesse Kassel
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Prussia annexes Schleswig, Holstein, Frankfurt, Hanover, Hesse-Kassel, and Nassau; and Austria promised not to intervene in German affairs
1866
Capture of Holstein
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Prussia annexes Schleswig, Holstein, Frankfurt, Hanover, Hesse-Kassel, and Nassau; and Austria promised not to intervene in German affairs
1866
Capture of Nassau
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Prussia annexes Schleswig, Holstein, Frankfurt, Hanover, Hesse-Kassel, and Nassau; and Austria promised not to intervene in German affairs
1866
Capture of Schleswig
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Prussia annexes Schleswig, Holstein, Frankfurt, Hanover, Hesse-Kassel, and Nassau; and Austria promised not to intervene in German affairs
1866
Constitution
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Prussia quickly defeated Austria and its allies, in a crushing victory at the battle of K”niggr„tz followed by the Peace of Prague the German Confederation is dissolved
1866
Election
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  In the elections to the House of Deputies the liberals suffer a major defeat, losing their large majority
  The new, largely conservative House is on much better terms with Bismarck than previous bodies; at the Minister-President's request, it retroactively approved the budgets of the past four years, which had been implemented without parliamentary conse
  Conservative victory in the chamber of 142
  Has a sufficient majority to raise an army reform budget for the 1st time in 5 yrs
  The election is held during the battle of Konigratz
1866
German Confederation
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Prussia quickly defeated Austria and its allies, in a crushing victory at the battle of K”niggr„tz followed by the Peace of Prague the German Confederation is dissolved
1866
Reform
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Gets Bill of Indemnity passed
  No need to guarantee accountability of Ministers to Parliament
1866
Unification
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Prussia quickly defeated Austria and its allies, in a crushing victory at the battle of K”niggr„tz followed by the Peace of Prague the German Confederation is dissolved
  Prussia annexes Schleswig, Holstein, Frankfurt, Hanover, Hesse-Kassel, and Nassau; and Austria promised not to intervene in German affairs
1866
Zollverein
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  The Zollverein is effectively ended in 1866 with the advent of the Austro-Prussian War
1866
German Confederation
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 June 14th Prussian delegates declare the German Confederation at an end
1866
Invasion of Holstein
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 June 14th The Federal Diet votes for mobilization against Prussia for it's invasion of Holstein
1866
Invasion of Hanover
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 June 15th Prussia invades Hanover
1866
Invasion of Hesse
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 June 15th Prussia invades Hesse
1866
Invasion of Saxony
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 June 15th Prussia invades Saxony
1866
Battle of Langensalza
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 June 29th Prussia defeat the Hanoverian army
1866
Defeat
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 June 29th Prussia defeat the Hanoverian army
 July 3rd Prussia defeats Austria
1866
Diplomacy
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 July 5th Bismarck is able to accept mediation on his terms
 July 5th Napoleon III expects both contestants to wear themselves down in a drawn out campaign
1866
Peace
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 July 26th The Peace of Nikolsburg is a preliminary peace between Austria & Prussia
 Aug 13th Prussia agrees peace & makes a secret military Alliance against France
 Aug 13th Prussia agrees peace & makes a secret military Alliance against France
 Aug 13th Prussia agrees peace & makes a secret military Alliance against France
1866
Treaty of Gastein
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Aug 20th Austria reneges on the agreement by demanding that the Diet determine the Schleswig-Holstein issue, Bismarck uses this as an excuse start a war with Austria by charging that the Austrians had violated the Convention of Gastein
1866
North German Confederation
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Aug 23rd The North German Confederation is created of German lands nth of the Maine
1866
Peace
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Aug 23rd Austria will be excluded from Germany
 Aug 23rd The Peace of Prague confirms the Peace of Nikolsburg
 Aug 23rd Under the Peace of Prague Frankfurt will become part of Prussia
 Aug 23rd Under the Peace of Prague Hanover will become part of Prussia
 Aug 23rd Under the Peace of Prague Hesse will become part of Prussia
 Aug 23rd Under the Peace of Prague South German States become independent
 Aug 23rd Under the Peace of Prague States nth of the Main form a Confederation under Prussia
 Aug 23rd The North German Confederation is created of German lands nth of the Maine
 Aug 23rd Under the Peace of Prague Austrian Silesia will become part of Prussia
1866
Rule of Frankfurt
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Aug 23rd Under the Peace of Prague Frankfurt will become part of Prussia
1866
Rule of Hanover
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Aug 23rd Bismarck annexes the Kingdom of Hanover, which had been allied with Austria against Prussia, agreement is reached whereby the deposed King Georg V of Hanover was allowed to keep about 50% of the crown assets
 Aug 23rd Under the Peace of Prague Hanover will become part of Prussia
1866
Rule of Hesse
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Aug 23rd Under the Peace of Prague Hesse will become part of Prussia
1866
Rule of Nassau
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Aug 23rd Under the Peace of Prague Nassau will become part of Prussia
1866
Rule of Silesia
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Aug 23rd Under the Peace of Prague Austrian Silesia will become part of Prussia
1867
Conference of London
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Luxemburg becomes neutral & demilitarized, under the protection of the European powers
1867
Economy
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  A new organization with the same name was brought about in 1867 when peace was restored, the new Zollverein is stronger, in that no individual state had a veto
1867
North German Confederation
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  From this point on begins what historians refer to as "The Misery of Austria", in which Austria serves as a mere vassal to the superior Germany, a relationship that was to shape history up to the two World Wars
  King Wilhelm I serves as its President, and Bismarck as its Chancellor
  To solidify Prussian hegemony, Prussia and several other North German states joined the North German Confederation
1867
Zollverein
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  A new organization with the same name was brought about in 1867 when peace was restored, the new Zollverein is stronger, in that no individual state had a veto
1868
Constitution
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Creates a Customs Parliament including the sth German States
1868
Zollverein
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Schleswig-Holstein, Kausenburg and Mecklenburg join the Zollverein
1869
Constitution
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  The Customs Union fails, "no man is humiliated who does not feel himself humiliated"
1869
Union Customs
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  The Customs Union fails, "no man is humiliated who does not feel himself humiliated"
1869
Succession
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Feb 25th Charles Anthony asks Bismarck to tell William to decide Leopold's Spanish succession
 Feb 25th Informed by Charles Anthony that Leopold had been sounded out for the Spanish throne
1869
Diplomacy
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 May 8th Benedetti is told by Bismarck that Leopold had refused the Spanish throne
1870
Alliance
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  The publication of the Emms telegram rallies southern German states
1870
Catholic Department
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Abolishes the Catholic Dept of the Prussian Ministry of Public Worship & Education
1870
Chancellor
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Appointed Imperial Chancellor of the 1st Reich
1870
Diplomacy
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Sets up a school's inspectorate in Prussia
1870
Election
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  The Centre Party win 57 seats, their new popularity shocks Bismarck into action
1870
Publication
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Wilhelm has Abeken telegram Gramont's terms to Bismarck who prints it
1870
Succession
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Leopold is offered the Spanish throne for a 2nd time, Bismarck recommends acceptence
1870
Unification
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Prussian victory establishes German unity
1870
Mobilization
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Jan 16th Bavaria & Baden mobilize under the terms of the 1866 military treaties
1870
Succession
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Mar 8th Issues a memo saying a Hohenzollern is Spain would tie down 2 French Divs
 Mar 15th Urges Charles Anthony to accept the Spanish crown
 Mar 15th William & the Crown Prince oppose Charles Anthony's Spanish succession
1870
Diplomacy
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Mar 19th Publishes Alliances with sth German states, German Armies are under Prussian control
1870
Succession
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 June 21st Leopold's acceptance of the offer of the Spanish throne is telegramed to Madrid
 June 21st Persuades Leopold to accept the Spanish offer of the throne
 July 4th The offer to Leopold becomes public when the French press expose it to the world
1870
Diplomacy
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 July 11th Meets Gorchakov & secures an understanding with Russia
1870
Succession
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 July 12th Charle's Anthony's renunciation of the throne is "a humiliation worse than Olmutz"
 July 12th William compels Charles Anthony to renounce the Spanish throne for his son Leopold
1870
Declaration of War
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 July 13th Bismarck uses Abeken's telegram as provocation of war
1870
Mobilization
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 July 14th The Landwehr is mobilized
1870
Declaration of War
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 July 19th Germany is supported by England & Russia who see Napoleon III emulating Napoleon I
 July 19th War is declared against France
1870
Mobilization
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 July 31st Sets out as a major-general with William to command the armies in the field
1870
Battle of Sedan
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Sep 1st Present in battle as a Major-General, victory leads to the German fall of Paris
1870
Peace
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Sep 18th Favre requests an honourable peace from Bismarck who demands Alsace, Metz & Strasbourg
1870
Siege of Paris
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Sep 18th Favre requests an honourable peace from Bismarck who demands Alsace, Metz & Strasbourg
1870
Unification
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Nov 14th Baden & Hesse join the Confederation of Germany
 Nov 14th Baden & Hesse join the Confederation of Germany
 Nov 23rd Germany is united under a single Confederation
1871
Alliance
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Reconciles William & Francis Joseph & discusses Alliance with Beust
1871
Centre Party
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Defends Catholic interests against Bismarck's Kulturkampf
1871
Chancellor
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Appointed Imperial Chancellor of the German Empire
  The 1866 North German Constitution becomes the 1871 Constitution of the German Empire with some adjustments
  The German Empire is the name used in English to describe the first 47 years of the German Reich when it was a semi-Constitutional monarchy: beginning with the unification of Germany and proclamation of William I of Prussia as German Emperor
  The new empire has a Parliament with two houses, the lower house, or Reichstag, is elected by universal male suffrage, however, the original constituencies drawn in 1871 were never redrawn to reflect the growth of urban areas
1871
Constitution
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  In the 1871 German Empire, the Chancellor served both as the Emperor's first minister, and as presiding officer of the Bundesrat, the upper chamber of the German parliament, appointed by the Emperor
  Legislation requires the consent of the Bundesrat, the federal council of deputies from the states, executive power is vested in the emperor, or Kaiser, who is assisted by a chancellor responsible only to him
  The unified Germany under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck is called in German Deutsches Reich, remains the official name of Germany until 1945
  When the German Empire was founded in 1871, the bulk of the empire was constituted from the Prussian-led Protestant states of the former North German Confederation
  A Federal Government, Bundesrat, elected by regional Governments
  A National Government, Reichstag, elected by all males over 25 by secret ballot
  Bismarck's intention is to create a Constitutional fa‡ade which would mask the continuation of authoritarian policies
  Officially, the chancellor is a one-man cabinet and is responsible for the conduct of all state affairs; in practice, the State Secretaries (officials in charge of fields as finance, war, foreign affairs, etc.) act as unofficial portfolio ministers
  Prussia uses a highly restrictive three-class voting system in which the richest third of the population could choose 85 percent of the legislature, all but assuring a conservative majority
  The Reichstag has the power to pass, amend or reject bills, it could not initiate Legislation, the power of initiating Legislation rests with the Chancellor
  With the exception of the years 1872-1873 and 1892-1894, the Chancellor is always simultaneously the prime minister of Prussia, with 17 out of 58 votes in the Bundesrat, Berlin needed only a few votes from the small states to exercise control
1871
Deutsches Reich
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  The unified Germany under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck is called in German Deutsches Reich, remains the official name of Germany until 1945
1871
Kanzelparagraph
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Among the measures taken to reduce the influence of the Catholic Church was the addition in 1871 of ţ 130a to the German Criminal Code (Strafgesetzbuch), which threatened clergy who discussed politics from the pulpit with two years of prison
  The 1871 Kanzelparagraph introduced a series of sanctions against Catholicism imposed by Bismarck throughout 1875
  The article is dubbed the Kanzelparagraph (from the German Kanzel - "pulpit")
  The Kanzelparagraph remains in force until 1953, several religious orders like the Jesuits remained banned from the German Empire, confiscated properties were not returned, discrimination against the Catholic minority continued in Civil Service
1871
Kulturkampf
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Among the measures taken to reduce the influence of the Catholic Church was the addition of ţ 130a to the German Criminal Code (Strafgesetzbuch), which threatened clergy who discussed politics from the pulpit with two years of prison
  Refers to German policies in relation to secularity and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, enacted from 1871 to 1878 by the Chancellor of the German Empire, Otto von Bismarck
  The 1871 Kanzelparagraph introduced a series of sanctions against Catholicism imposed by Bismarck throughout 1875
1871
Peace
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  William makes Bismarck responsible for conducting the peace with France
1871
Peerage
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Created Furst von Bismarck (Prince Bismarck)
1871
Reichstag
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  The new empire has a Parliament with two houses, the lower house, or Reichstag, is elected by universal male suffrage, however, the original constituencies drawn in 1871 were never redrawn to reflect the growth of urban areas
1871
Strafgesetzbuch
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Among the measures taken to reduce the influence of the Catholic Church was the addition in 1871 of ţ 130a to the German Criminal Code (Strafgesetzbuch), which threatened clergy who discussed politics from the pulpit with two years of prison
1871
Unification
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  A National Government, Reichstag, elected by all males over 25 by secret ballot
1871
Zollverein
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Alsace-Lorraine join the Zollverein after being acquired by Germany following the Franco-Prussian war
1871
Peace
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Jan 25th Royal orders force Moltke to submit to Bismarck who wishes to end the war
 Jan 26th Put in control of the armistice talks
 Feb Discusses peace terms with Thiers & Favre
1871
Kulturkampf
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Feb 7th The Kanzelparagraph remains in force until 1953, several religious orders like the Jesuits remained banned from the German Empire, confiscated properties were not returned, discrimination against the Catholic minority continued in Civil Service
1871
Reichstag
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Mar 21st Opens the 1st Reichstag of the 2nd Reich
1871
Rule of Alsace
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 May 10th Under the treaty of Frankfurt Germany keeps Alsace
1871
Rule of Lorraine
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 May 10th Under the treaty of Frankfurt Germany keeps Alsace
1871
Treaty of Frankfurt
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 May 10th A German army of occuption will remain in France until the war indemnity is paid
 May 10th Ends the Franco-Prussian War
 May 10th Germany keeps Alsace & Lorraine
1872
Alliance
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  William, Franz Joseph & Nicholas meet, Bismarck wants to create another Holy Alliance
1872
Chancellor
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Persuades William to Appoint Roon as Minister of President of Prussia
1872
Diplomacy
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  the Jesuits are banned (and remained banned in Germany until 1917) and in December the German Government broke off diplomatic relations with the Vatican
  William, Franz Joseph & Nicholas meet, Bismarck can create another Holy Alliance
1872
Dismissal
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Has Roon dismissed after 10 months because he fails to sufficiently support Bismarck
1872
Kulturkampf
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  The estate of the Church was confiscated, monastic orders dissolved, and the paragraphs of the Prussian Constitution assuring the freedom of the Catholics is removed
  the Jesuits are banned (and remained banned in Germany until 1917) and in December the German Government broke off diplomatic relations with the Vatican
 Mar Religious schools are forced to undergo official Government inspection and in June religious teachers are banned from Government schools
1872
Legislation
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Mar Religious schools are forced to undergo official Government inspection and in June religious teachers are banned from Government schools
1872
Education
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 May Under the May Laws administered by Adalbert Falk, the state begins to monitor the education of clergy closely, creates a secular court for cases involving the clergy, and requires notification of all clergy employment
1872
Kulturkampf
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 May The Jesuits are banned (and remained banned in Germany until 1917)
 May Under the May Laws administered by Adalbert Falk, the state begins to monitor the education of clergy closely, creates a secular court for cases involving the clergy, and requires notification of all clergy employment
1872
Legislation
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 May The Jesuits are banned (and remained banned in Germany until 1917)
 May Under the May Laws administered by Adalbert Falk, the state begins to monitor the education of clergy closely, creates a secular court for cases involving the clergy, and requires notification of all clergy employment
1872
May Laws
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 May Under the May Laws administered by Adalbert Falk, the state begins to monitor the education of clergy closely, creates a secular court for cases involving the clergy, and requires notification of all clergy employment
1872
Kulturkampf
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 June Religious schools are forced to undergo official Government inspection and religious teachers are banned from Government schools
1872
Diplomacy
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Dec The German Government breaks off diplomatic relations with the Vatican
1872
Kulturkampf
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Dec The German Government breaks off diplomatic relations with the Vatican
1873
Alliance
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  William, Moltke & Bismarck agree a military convention with the Russians
1873
Kulturkampf
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Bismarck sees the addition of the southern German states (especially Catholic Bavaria) as a possible threat to the Empire's stability
  Tensions were also increased by the 1870 Vatican Council proclamation on papal infallibility
  The term "Kulurkampf" is 1st used to describe Bismark's crusade against the Catholics
  Two archbishops are in prison & 1300 parishes do not have a priest
1873
Legislation
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  The "May Laws" of 1873-75 require state approval for training & licensing of priests
  The "May Laws" of 1873-75 require state approval for training & licensing priests
1873
Reform
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  The "May Laws" of 1873-75 require state approval for training & licensing of priests
  The "May Laws" of 1873-75 require state approval for training & licensing priests
1873
Roman Catholic Church
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  The "May Laws" of 1873-75 require state approval for training & licensing priests
1873
Invasion of France
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Jan 9th German occupation forces begin to evacuate France following the death of Napoleon III
1873
Diplomacy
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 May 6th A military convention between Germany & Russia
1873
Invasion of France
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Sep 8th Germany completes it's evacuation of France
1873
Alliance
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Oct 22nd An Alliance of the Emperors of Germany, Russia & Austria
1873
Diplomacy
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Oct 22nd An Alliance of the Emperors of Germany, Russia & Austria
1873
Minister
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Oct 22nd The office of Minister-President of Prussia is temporarily separated from that of Chancellor, when Albrecht von Roon is appointed to the former office, but by the end of the year, Roon resigned due to ill health, and Bismarck becomes PM
1874
Budget
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Finally passes the military budget, each military budget is to last 7 years
1874
Catholic Centre Party
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Bismarck's attempts to restrict the power of the Catholic Church, represented in politics by the Catholic Centre Party, were not successful, in the 1874 elections, these forces double their representation in the parliament
1874
Election
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Bismarck's attempts to restrict the power of the Catholic Church, represented in politics by the Catholic Centre Party, were not successful, in the 1874 elections, these forces double their representation in the parliament
1874
Kulturkampf
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Bismarck even blames the poisoning of a popular lion from Berlin Zoological Gardens on Catholic conspirators
  Bismarck's attempts to restrict the power of the Catholic Church, represented in politics by the Catholic Centre Party, were not successful, in the 1874 elections, these forces double their representation in the parliament
1874
Plot
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  A Catholic, Heinz Kullman, attempts to assassinate Bismarck at Bad Kissingen
1874
Election
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Jan 23rd Catholics rally around the Centre Party which increases its vote from 63 to 91 seats
 Jan 23rd The Catholic Centre increases its seats because of hatred of the May Laws
1874
Legislation
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 May 25th Further May Laws against the Ultramontane clergy provoking Pius IX to annul them
 May 25th Further May Laws against the Ultramontane clergy provoking Pius IX to annul them
1874
Kulturkampf
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 July 13th Eduard Kullmann attempts to assassinate Bismarck with a pistol, but only hits his hand, Kullmann names the church laws as the reason why he had to shoot Bismarck
1874
Arrest
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Oct 4th Count Arnim is arrested after the discovery of a plot to replace Bismarck by him
1875
Constitution
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  The Congregations Law of 1875 abolishes religious orders, stops state subsidies to the Catholic Church, and removes religious protections from the Prussian Constitution
1875
Kulturkampf
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Marriage becomes a mandatory civil ceremony, removed from the control of the Church
  The 1871 Kanzelparagraph introduced a series of sanctions against Catholicism imposed by Bismarck throughout 1875
  The Congregations Law of 1875 abolishes religious orders, stops state subsidies to the Catholic Church, and removes religious protections from the Prussian Constitution
1875
Legislation
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Marriage becomes a mandatory civil ceremony, removed from the control of the Church
  The Congregations Law of 1875 abolishes religious orders, stops state subsidies to the Catholic Church, and removes religious protections from the Prussian Constitution
1875
Diplomacy
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Feb 24th Seeks to preserve relations with Russia after problems with France
 April 8th Creates tension with France whe he asks "is war in sight?" in the Berlin Post
 April 8th Louis Decazes seeks support from Russia & Britain against Bismarck, war is averted
 April 8th Starts a war scare with France
  Offers Russia an Alliance if for Alsace-Lorraine, Russia refuses
1876
Rule of Alsace Lorraine
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Offers Russia an Alliance if for Alsace-Lorraine, Russia refuses
1878
Alliance
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Abandons the National Liberals in favour of the Conservatives after the Kulturkampf
1878
Catholic Centre Party
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  The struggle against socialism unites Bismarck with the Catholic Centre Party, bringing an end to the Kulturkampf, which had led to far greater Catholic unrest than existed beforehand and had strengthened rather than weakened Catholicism
1878
Kulturkampf
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  The struggle against socialism unites Bismarck with the Catholic Centre Party, bringing an end to the Kulturkampf, which had led to far greater Catholic unrest than existed beforehand and had strengthened rather than weakened Catholicism
  Falk is dismissed & most anti-Catholic laws are dismantled
  Pius dies & is replaced by the conciliatory Leo X
1878
Reform
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Prohibition of the Socialist Party press & organization
1878
SDP
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  The SPD defends itself by conventions in London & Switzerland
1878
Treaty of Berlin
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Acts as "the honest broker"
  Russia gains Bessarabia, Bulgaria is reduced in size & placed under Turkish rule
  Under the treaty of Berlin Romania gains Dobrudja, Serbia & Montenegro become independent
1878
Kulturkampf
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Feb 7th Moderates his struggle with the Catholic Church and in the wake of Pius IX's death on February 7, 1878, reconciled with the new Pope, Leo XIII, lifting some sanctions
1878
Congress of Berlin
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 June 13th Opening day of the Congress of Berlin to resolve the "Eastern Question"
 June 13th The congress aims to revise the treaty of San Stefano and keep Constantinople in Ottoman hands and disavow Russia's victory over the decaying Ottoman Empire in the Russia-Turkey War, 1877-78
 June 13th The Congress of Berlin redistributes back to the Ottoman Empire certain Bulgarian territories that the previous treaty had given to the Principality of Bulgaria, most notably Macedonia
 June 13th The congress revisedsor eliminates 18 of the 29 articles in the treaty of San Stefano using as a foundation the treaties of Paris (1856) and London (1871)
 June 13th The meetings are held at Chancellor Bismarck's residence, the Reichskanzlei (chancellory), the former Radziwill Palace, from June 13, 1878 until July 13, 1878
1878
Treaty of San Stefano
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 June 13th The congress revisedsor eliminates 18 of the 29 articles in the treaty of San Stefano using as a foundation the treaties of Paris (1856) and London (1871)
1878
Congress of Berlin
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 July 13th Closing day of the Congress of Berlin
1879
Alliance
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Breaks from the national liberals & relies upon the conservative parties
  Does not create a "greater Germany", preserves the balance of power
1879
Diplomacy
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Raises some tariff restrictions against Russia
1879
Rule of Schleswig
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Feb 4th Breaks the treaty of Prague & refuses to support a plebiscite in nth Schleswig
1879
Treaty of Prague
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Feb 4th Breaks the treaty of Prague & refuses to support a plebiscite in nth Schleswig
1879
Diplomacy
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Sep 3rd William I & Alexander II try to put right some misunderstandings
1879
Alliance
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Oct 7th Agrees a dual Alliance between Austria & Germany, similar to the Holy Alliance
1879
Treaty of Alliance
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Oct 7th Austria & Germany agree neutrality if either is at war, except against Russia
 Oct 7th Austria & Germany agree to support each other in any war with Russia
 Oct 7th Signed between Austria-Hungary & Germany, despite William I's opposition
 Oct 7th The Austrian Alliance is used to prevent & Crimean coaliton & avoid another war
1881
SDP
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  The Septennat Law financing the Army for 7 years is passed through the Reichstag
1882
Constitution
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Jan Says the Emperor is the real Minister President of Prussia
 Jan 4th Passes a Royal Edict proclaiming the Emperor's responsibility for Government policy
 Jan 24th Informs the Landtag that the First Minister will be the servant of the King-Emperor
1883
Legislation
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  The social security systems installed by Bismarck (health care in 1883, accidents insurance in 1884, invalidity and old-age insurance in 1889) at the time are the most advanced in the world
  Passes the Sickness Insurance Law
  Passes the Sickness Insurance Law
1883
Reform
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Passes the Sickness Insurance Law
1884
Conference of Berlin
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Athe the Conference of Berlin Britain recognizes Germany's claims to the Cameroons
  Athe the Conference of Berlin Britain recognizes Germany's claims to the New Guinea
  Bismarck calls together a confernce of Germany, Turkey, the USA & the European nations
  Germany agrees to support Britain's claims in Nigeria, against the French
  The Conference discusses the status of the Congo & Niger river basins
1884
Legislation
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  The social security systems installed by Bismarck (health care in 1883, accidents insurance in 1884, invalidity and old-age insurance in 1889) at the time are the most advanced in the world
1884
Reform
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Passes the Accident Insurance Law
1884
Rule of Cameroons
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  At the Conference of Berlin Britain recognizes Germany's claims to the Cameroons
1884
Rule of New Guinea
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Athe the Conference of Berlin Britain recognizes Germany's claims to the New Guinea
1884
Rule of Nigeria
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Germany agrees to support Britain's claims in Nigeria, against the French
1884
Diplomacy
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Feb 11th Offers Britain German support over Africa in return for the cession of Heligoland
1884
Rule of Heligoland
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Feb 11th Offers Britain German support over Africa in return for the cession of Heligoland
1885
Deputy Secretary of State
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Appointed Deputy Secretary of State
1886
Budget
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Asks the Reichstag to increase the military budget after the end of the Dreikaiserbund
  Calls up reserves & announces a war loan to rally patriotic voters at the election
  Dissolves the Reichstag after failing to raise the budget
  The Reichstag turns down Bismark's proposals to increase military spending
1886
Reichstag
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Dissolves the Reichstag after it refuses his increases to the military budget
1887
Budget
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Creates ne taxes for liquor & sugar & increasing taxes on grains
  Passes a Septennial Act increasing the military budget
1887
Election
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  The Free Conservatives & National Liberals win 220 out of 375 seats
1887
Treaty of Reinsurance
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  A supplementary protocol promises German support for Russia in the Dardanelles
1887
Treaty of Mediterranean
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Feb 12th Agreed between powers maintaining the status quo in the Mediterranean against Turkey
1888
Armament
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Feb 6th Introduces a measure to increase the army reserve to 3 1/4 of a million
 Feb 6th Says to the Reichstag, "We Germans fear God & nothing else on Earth"
1889
Reform
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Passes the Old Age & Disability Insurance Law
1890
Peerage
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Created Herzog von Lauenburg (Duke of Lauenburg), highest rank of non-sovereign nobility & styled Serene Highness
1890
Election
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Feb 20th The cartell led by Bismarck loses 57 National Liberal & 28 Conservative seats
1890
Dismissal
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 Mar 20th Dismissed by William II who "drops the pilot"Benjamin Harrison was inaugurated as 23rd President
1891
Election
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
 May 2nd Returned for Geestmunde with a large majority
1896
Diplomacy
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Attacks the Emperor for trying to sacrifice Russian friendship
  Reveals the secret Reinsurance treaty with Russia
1896
Treaty of Reinsurance
Bismarck-Schonhausen, Otto Furst von
  Reveals the secret Reinsurance treaty with Russia

Arts
  A-Z
  Events
  General
  Literature
  Popular Music
Battles
  A-Z
  000-499
  500-999
  1000-1299
  1300-1599
  1600-1899
  1900-2009
Chronology
  Calendar
  Year
Births, Deaths & Marriages
  Births
  Deaths
  Marriages
Governments
  A-Z
  000-499
  500-999
  1000-1299
  1300-1499
  1500-1599
  1600-1899
  1900-1944
  1945-1969
  1970-2011
  Diplomacy
  Elections
  Presidents
  Prime Ministers
Military
  A-Z
  Events
  000-1699
  1700-1899
  1900-2011
Monarchy
  A-Z
  000-499
  500-999
  1000-1299
  1300-1499
  1500-1599
  1600-1899
  1900-2009
  Abdications
  Coronations
  Emperor
  King
  Queen
Religion
  A-Z
  Events
  000-1699
  1700-1899
  1900-2009
Science
  A-Z
  Events
Sport
  A-Z
  Events
Warfare
  A-Z
  000-499
  500-999
  1000-1299
  1300-1599
  1600-1799
  1800-1899
  1900-1938
  1935-1945
  1946-2009
  Battles
  Bombing
  Civil Wars
  Capture
  League of Nations
  NATO
  Nuclear
  Revolutions
  Rule
  Sieges
  Treaties
  UN
  WW1
  WW2
World Leaders
  A-Z
  Events
  000-1699
  1700-1899
  1900-1944
  1945-1969
  1970-2009


Web Page Visitor Counter