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The World History Database

The World History Database

Oliver Cromwell
History of England


1599
Birth
Cromwell, Oliver
 April 25th Birth of Oliver Cromwell
1616
Education
Cromwell, Oliver
  Sent to Sidney Sussex College but leaves after the death of his father a year later
1620
Marriage
Cromwell, Oliver
  Marries Elizabeth Bourchier
1628
Member of Parliament
Cromwell, Oliver
  Elected Member of Parliament for Huntingdon
1631
St Ives
Cromwell, Oliver
  Cromwell & his family live in St Ives, 1631-1636
1640
Member of Parliament
Cromwell, Oliver
  Elected Member of Parliament for Huntingdon
1640
Reform
Cromwell, Oliver
  Moves the 2nd reading of the Bill for annual Parliaments
1641
Rebellion
Cromwell, Oliver
  Challenges the right of the King to command the army during a crisis
  Moves in Parliament the Trained Bands be placed under Essex during the rebellion
  Challenges the right of the King to command the army during a crisis
  Moves in Parliament the Trained Bands be placed under the Earl of Essex
1641
Episcopacy
Cromwell, Oliver
 May 12th Cromwell & Vane introduce an Act for the abolition of episcopacy
1642
Ironsides
Cromwell, Oliver
  Combines strict discipline & religious enthusiasm
  Forms the Ironsides Regiment after the battle of Edgehill
1642
Rebellion
Cromwell, Oliver
  Reports in Parliament the dangers of a Papist rising led by the Marquis of Worcester
  Reports in Parliament the dangers of a Papist rising led by the Marquis of Worcester
1642
Siege of King's Coll
Cromwell, Oliver
  Leads an army into Kings College Cambridge & siezes plate worth 20,000
1642
Cambridge Volunteers
Cromwell, Oliver
 July 15th Moves in Parliament he be authorized to raise two companies of volunteers in Cambridge
1642
Captain
Cromwell, Oliver
 Aug 28th Appointed Captain of a troop of horse he musters at Huntingdon
 Aug 28th Appointed Captain of Horse
1642
Battle of Edgehill
Cromwell, Oliver
 Oct 23rd Captain of troop of horse at the battle of Edgehill
1643
County Associations
Cromwell, Oliver
  Counties are inefficient for managing armies so County Associations are formed
1643
Plantations Committee
Cromwell, Oliver
  Appointed Member of the Committee of Plantations
1643
Reform
Cromwell, Oliver
  Counties are inefficient for managing armies so County Associations are formed
1643
Battle of Grantham
Cromwell, Oliver
 May 13th 1st victory for Cromwell & the Eastern association
1643
Siege of Burghley
Cromwell, Oliver
 July 24th Leads a successful Siege in Northamptonshire against the Countess of Essex
1643
Battle of Gainsborough
Cromwell, Oliver
 July 28th Wins a victory over Royalist forces
1643
Governor
Cromwell, Oliver
 July 28th Receives news from Parliament that he has been appointed Governor of the Isle of Ely
1643
Conscription
Cromwell, Oliver
 Aug 10th Parliament issues instructions for the impressment of 22,000 in London & the east
1643
Mobilization
Cromwell, Oliver
 Aug 10th Parliament issues instructions for the impressment of 22,000 in London & the east
 Aug 10th Parliament issues instructions for the impressment of 22,000 in London & the east
1643
Alliance
Cromwell, Oliver
 Sep 25th Parliament promises to protect Scottish Presbyterianism
  Helps form an Alliance between Scotland & Parliament
1644
Both Kingdoms
Cromwell, Oliver
  Appointed Member of the Committee of Both Kingdoms
  Appointed Member of the Committee of Both Kingdoms
1644
Independents
Cromwell, Oliver
  Appointed Leader of the Independents
1644
Reform
Cromwell, Oliver
  Leads an Army sect demanding religious toleration & prosecution of criminals
1644
Second in Command
Cromwell, Oliver
  Appointed 2nd-in-Command of the Parliamentary Army
  Appointed 2nd-in-Command of the Parliamentary Army
1644
Lieutenant
Cromwell, Oliver
 Feb 5th Signs the Covenant enabling him to take up the position of Lieutenant Colonel
 Feb 5th Signs the Covenant enabling him to take up the position of Lieutenant Colonel
1644
Battle of Marston Moor
Cromwell, Oliver
 July 2nd Cromwell's first major victory, personally commands 2,500 men
 July 2nd Defeats the Royalists near York, leaving 4,000 dead & taking 1,500 prisoners
 July 2nd Sweeps away Goring's horse by attacking the Royalists from the rear
1644
Siege of York
Cromwell, Oliver
 July 4th Resumes the Siege of York after victory at Marston Moor
1644
Capture of York
Cromwell, Oliver
 July 16th Leads the "Ironsides" & captures York
1644
Capture of Newcastle
Cromwell, Oliver
 Oct 16th Commander of the "Ironsides" during Parliament's capture of Newcastle
1644
Council of War
Cromwell, Oliver
 Nov 10th Advises a military defeat of the King after Manchester fails to persue him in battle
1645
Independents
Cromwell, Oliver
  Leads the Independents, a sect demanding religious toleration & prosecution of the war
1645
New Model Army
Cromwell, Oliver
  Modeled after Cromwell's Ironsides
  Persuades Parliament to adopt a new militia, maintained by impressment & taxation
  The Committee of Both Kingdoms recommends a new army of 22,000 run by Parliament
  The New Model Army is created by Oliver Cromwell & Thomas Fairfax
1645
Siege of Oxford
Cromwell, Oliver
  Besieges Oxford to prevent Charles I joining up with Prince Maurice & Prince Rupert
1645
Lieutenant
Cromwell, Oliver
 Jan 22nd Appointed 2nd-in-Command for Manchester
 Jan 22nd Appointed Lieutenant-General of the Horse & Foot
 Jan 22nd Appointed Lieutenant-General of the Horse & Foot
1645
Surrender
Cromwell, Oliver
 Mar 14th Sir Ralph Hopton signs articles of surrender at Exeter
 Mar 14th The Royalists are defeated in the West, only Oxford remains as a serious threat
1645
2nd in Command
Cromwell, Oliver
 April 3rd Appointed 2nd-in-Command of the New Model Army
1645
Dismissal
Cromwell, Oliver
 April 3rd Removes the existing Generals
1645
Lieutenant
Cromwell, Oliver
 April 3rd Fairfax succeeds Essex as Captain-General & Cromwell becomes Lt General
 April 3rd Fairfax succeeds Essex as Captain-General & Cromwell becomes Lt General
1645
Self Denying Ordinance
Cromwell, Oliver
 April 3rd All MPs except Cromwell must relinquish military commissions within 40 days
 April 3rd Creates a New Model Army becoming 2nd-in-Command under Sir Thomas Fairfax
 April 3rd Removes the existing Generals
1645
Battle of Islip
Cromwell, Oliver
 April 24th Cromwell defeats Northumberland at Islip
1645
Battle of Faringdon House
Cromwell, Oliver
 April 29th Cromwell is repulsed at Faringdon House
1645
Battle of Faringdon
Cromwell, Oliver
 May 2nd Defeated by Goring during a minor skirmish
 May 2nd Defeated in battle by the Earl of Norwich, George Goring
1645
Siege of Oxford
Cromwell, Oliver
 May 7th Charles I & Goring evade Cromwell's forces & manage to leave Oxford
1645
Mobilization
Cromwell, Oliver
 May 19th Advances to Kenilworth but orderred to retreat by the Parliamentary Committee
 May 19th Joins forces with Fairfax at Nuneham near Oxford
 May 22nd Obeys Parliament & joins up with Fairfax in Oxford
1645
Battle of Preston
Cromwell, Oliver
 May 31st The 1st battle over which Cromwell has independent command
 May 31st Wins victory over the Scots under Hamilton
1645
Battle of Worcester
Cromwell, Oliver
 May 31st Royalist victory, diverts Fairfax from Oxford, Charles then proceeds safely to Oxford
1645
Mobilization
Cromwell, Oliver
 May 31st Arrives in Cambridge to gather 3,000 horse & reinforce the Eastern Association
1645
Commander
Cromwell, Oliver
 June 10th The Commons approves Cromwell's appointment as 2nd in Command of the New Model Army
 June 10th The Commons approves Cromwell's appointment as 2nd in Command of the New Model Army
1645
Lieutenant
Cromwell, Oliver
 June 10th The Commons approves Cromwell's appointment as Lieutenant General of the Horse
1645
Mobilization
Cromwell, Oliver
 June 11th Intent on joining up with Fairfax to expel Charles I from the Midlands
 June 12th Cromwell joins forces with Fairfax & Parliament has an Army of more than 13,000 men
1645
Battle of Naseby
Cromwell, Oliver
 June 14th Advises Fairfax to occupy high ground & tempt a Royalist charge across the marshes
 June 14th Commands the cavalry to the right of centre
 June 14th Contributes to Charles' downfall & the ascendancy of Cromwell & the independents
 June 14th Parliamentary victory, Charles has 7,500 men & Parliamentary forces number 13,500
1645
Siege of Oxford
Cromwell, Oliver
 June 15th Establishes an HQ in Holton to prepare for the Siege of Oxford
 June 20th The garrison in Oxford surrenders to Cromwell
1645
Battle of Hambledon Hill
Cromwell, Oliver
 Aug 4th Cromwell routs Dorsetshire clubmen at Hambledon Hill
1645
Siege of Bristol
Cromwell, Oliver
 Sep Present at Keynsham during Parliament's Siege of Bristol
 Sep Present at Stapleton at Fairfax's HQ during Parliament's Siege of Bristol
1645
Battle of Bristol
Cromwell, Oliver
 Sep 10th Defeats Prince Rupert & captures Bristol
 Sep 10th Prince Rupert is forced to return to Oxford, his forces intact
1645
Capture of Bristol
Cromwell, Oliver
 Sep 10th Defeats Prince Rupert & captures Bristol
1645
Siege of Bristol
Cromwell, Oliver
 Sep 10th Commands Parliament's action around Prior's Hill fort
 Sep 10th Defeats Prince Rupert & captures Bristol
1645
Battle of Devizes
Cromwell, Oliver
 Sep 25th Cromwell captures Devizes
1645
Battle of Winchester
Cromwell, Oliver
 Sep 28th Cromwell captures Winchester
1645
Battle of Basingstoke
Cromwell, Oliver
 Oct 13th Defeats the Marquise of Winchester
 Oct 13th Secures the last major obstacle between London & the West Country
1646
Peace
Cromwell, Oliver
 April 25th Announces the King's peace offer to the Independents who refuse to respond
1646
Escape
Cromwell, Oliver
 April 29th The escape of the King from Oxford is announced in Parliament
1646
Surrender
Cromwell, Oliver
 May 6th The surrender of the King to the Scots in Newark is announced in Parliament
1647
Arrest
Cromwell, Oliver
  Orders the abduction of Charles II at Holmby
1647
Mobilization
Cromwell, Oliver
  Flees Parliament & joins an Army with 100 members of the House of Commons
1647
Siege of London
Cromwell, Oliver
 Aug 6th Enters London with an Army & forces Parliament to take him & the other MPs back
1648
Constitution
Cromwell, Oliver
  Before the execution of Charles I the Commons makes itself the highest body
  Agrees Parliament's decision to cease Constitutional negotiations with the King
  Fails to persuade Charles to accept Constitutional limitations on monarchy
1648
Battle of Winwick Pass
Cromwell, Oliver
 Aug 19th Fighting in the fields outside the town of Preston, the English Parliamentarian forces of Oliver Cromwell inflict a major reverse on the Anglo-Scottish Royalist army of the Duke of Hamilton
1648
Rump Parliament
Cromwell, Oliver
 Dec In the wake of the ejections from the Long Parliament, the remnant, the Rump Parliament, arranges for the trial and execution of Charles I
1648
Long Parliament
Cromwell, Oliver
 Dec 6th Divisions emerge culminating in Pride's Purge when, under the orders of Oliver Cromwell's son-in-law Henry Ireton, Colonel Pride physically bars about half of the members of Parliament from taking their seats
1648
Pride's Purge
Cromwell, Oliver
 Dec 6th Divisions emerge culminating in Pride's Purge when, under the orders of Oliver Cromwell's son-in-law Henry Ireton, Colonel Pride physically bars about half of the members of Parliament from taking their seats
1649
Chairman
Cromwell, Oliver
  Appointed Chairman of the Council of State
1649
Commander
Cromwell, Oliver
  Appointed Commander-in-Chief
1649
Commonwealth
Cromwell, Oliver
  The Rump Parliament is responsible for the setting up of the Commonwealth of England
1649
Lord Lieutenant
Cromwell, Oliver
  Appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
1649
Oath
Cromwell, Oliver
  "be true & faithful to the Commonwealth of England, without a King or House of Lords"
1649
Rebellion
Cromwell, Oliver
  After the bloodshed of Drogheda Dundalk surrenders without residtance
  Accepts the surrnder of New Ross
  After the bloodshed of Drogheda Trim surrenders without residtance
1649
Reform
Cromwell, Oliver
  The name of the Kings Bench is changed to the Upper Bench
1649
Rump Parliament
Cromwell, Oliver
  The Rump Parliament is responsible for the setting up of the Commonwealth of England
1649
Execution
Cromwell, Oliver
 Jan 26th One of the signatories of Charles I's death warrant
1649
Reform
Cromwell, Oliver
 Feb A committee including Cromwell revises the lists of JP's throughout England & Wales
1649
Chairman
Cromwell, Oliver
 Feb 14th Appointed Chairman of the Council of State
1649
Constitution
Cromwell, Oliver
 Feb 14th A Council of State becomes an executive over the House of Commons
 Mar The House of Lords is abolished
 Mar The monarchy is abolished
1649
House of Lords
Cromwell, Oliver
 Mar The House of Lords is abolished
1649
Constitution
Cromwell, Oliver
 Mar 19th The Commons abolishes the House of Lords, against Cromwell's will
1649
Commonwealth
Cromwell, Oliver
 May 19th Parliament declares England a commonwealth with supreme authority in the Commons
1649
Constitution
Cromwell, Oliver
 May 19th Parliament declares England a commonwealth with supreme authority in the Commons
1649
Declaration of Commonwealth
Cromwell, Oliver
 May 19th Parliament declares England a commonwealth with supreme authority in the Commons
1649
Parliament
Cromwell, Oliver
 May 19th Parliament declares England a commonwealth with supreme authority in the Commons
1649
Reform
Cromwell, Oliver
 May 19th Parliament declares England a commonwealth with supreme authority in the Commons
1649
Rebellion
Cromwell, Oliver
 Aug 15th Cromwell is in Ireland from 1649 to 26th May 1650
 Aug 15th Cromwell lands in Ireland with 20,000 men
 Aug 15th Cromwell lands in Ireland with 20,000 men, in Ireland from 1649 to 26th May 1650
 Aug 15th Hopes to liberate Ireland from Irish "barbarity" & catholic "hypocrisy"
 Aug 15th Hopes to liberate Ireland from royalist "misrule"
 Sep 10th Aston refuses to surrender, Cromwell says he is not responsible for the bloodshed
 Sep 11th 1st day of the assault on Drogheda but Cromwell is forced to make a temporary retreat
 Sep 11th Launches a policy of terror to prevent the "effusion of blood"
 Sep 11th More that 3,500 defenders of Drogheda are killed, including 1,000 civilians
 Sep 11th Orders a massacre of 1,500, including English Royalists, civilians & Catholic priests
 Oct Orders the massacre of Wexford
 Oct 1st Cromwell arrives outside Wexford with 7,000 foot & 2,000 horse
 Oct 3rd Requests Wexford to surrender but Sinnott refuses & waits for reinforcements
 Oct 11th Cromwell occupies Wexford Castle & 1,500 in Wexford are massacred
 Oct 11th Stafford surrenders Wexford Castle to Cromwell
 Oct 30th Set aside as a day of thanksgiving for the surrender of Drogheda
1650
Commander
Cromwell, Oliver
  Cromwell is appointed Fairax's successor, "captain-general and commander-in-chief of all the forces raised or to be raised at authority of Parliament within the Commonwealth of England"
  Cromwell is appointed Fairax's successor, "captain-general and commander-in-chief of all the forces raised or to be raised at authority of Parliament within the Commonwealth of England"
  Cromwell is appointed Fairax's successor, "captain-general and commander-in-chief of all the forces raised or to be raised at authority of Parliament within the Commonwealth of England"
1650
Kings Arms
Cromwell, Oliver
  Orders removal of the Kings Arms & replacing it with the Arms of the Commonwealth
1650
Battle of Clonmel
Cromwell, Oliver
 May 17th Cromwell's 8000 men eventually take the town from its 1000 Irish defenders, but not before they suffer heavy losses
1650
Siege of Clonmel
Cromwell, Oliver
 May 17th Cromwell's men are trapped by Hugh Dubh O'Neill, 2,500 are killed
1650
Invasion of Scotland
Cromwell, Oliver
 June 28th Sets off with a force to invade Scotland
 July 22nd Crosses the Scottish border at the head of an Army of 16,000
 Aug 30th Holds a council of war & decides to retreat to Dunbar & fortify the town
1650
Siege of Dunbar
Cromwell, Oliver
 Aug 30th Decides to Fortify Dunbar in the hope of provoking Leslie into battle
 Aug 30th Holds a council of war & decides to retreat to Dunbar & fortify the town
1650
Battle of Haddington
Cromwell, Oliver
 Aug 31st Marches to Haddington persued by Leslie who puts Cromwell's rearguard into disorder
1650
Siege of Edinburgh
Cromwell, Oliver
 Sep Begins the Siege of Edinburgh after victory at Dunbar
1650
Siege of Dunbar
Cromwell, Oliver
 Sep 1st Offers the Scots battle, they refuse & Cromwell falls back to Dunbar
1650
Battle of Dunbar
Cromwell, Oliver
 Sep 2nd Writes "Out lying here daily consumeth our men who fall sick beyond imagination"
 Sep 3rd After the battle Cromwell is in control of southern Scotland & the route to Edinburgh
 Sep 3rd Defeats a Scottish Army of 22,000 with 3,500 horse & 7,500 foot of his own, 3,000 killed to the Roundheads 30 killed
1650
Siege of Edinburgh
Cromwell, Oliver
 Dec 24th The garrison at Edinburgh surrenders to Cromwell
1651
Council of State
Cromwell, Oliver
 Feb 14th The Council of State is established by Act of Parliament as a ruling body
 Mar 14th The Council of State's 14 members are elected, including Cromwell
1651
Constitution
Cromwell, Oliver
 Mar 17th The Monarchy is abolished
 Mar 19th The House of Lords is abolished, Cromwell wished to keep it as an advisory body
1651
House of Lords
Cromwell, Oliver
 Mar 19th The House of Lords is abolished, Cromwell wished to keep it as an advisory body
1651
Reform
Cromwell, Oliver
 May The Commonwealth is formerly enacted by Parliament
1651
Siege of Stirling
Cromwell, Oliver
 July Conducts the Siege of Stirling
1651
Siege of Perth
Cromwell, Oliver
 Aug 2nd Perth surrenders to Cromwell
1651
Siege of Stirling
Cromwell, Oliver
 Aug 4th Cromwell leads an Army across the Forth
1651
Mobilization
Cromwell, Oliver
 Aug 24th Joins forces with Lambert & Harrison at Warwick
1651
Battle of Worcester
Cromwell, Oliver
 Aug 27th Cromwell, Lambert & Fleetwood command 31,000
 Aug 27th Worcester is blocked off at the south & east & forces move to block off the north
 Aug 27th Writes a letter saying that the enemy within Worcester "will have to fight or die"
1651
Mobilization
Cromwell, Oliver
 Aug 27th Arrives 15 miles sth west of Worcester at the head of an army of 28,000
1651
Battle of Worcester
Cromwell, Oliver
 Aug 29th Has Worcester surrounded & starts pounding the Royalists
 Sep 3rd Begins the attack on Worcester 12 months to the day after the battle of Dunbar
 Sep 3rd Drives Charles II out of England to France
 Sep 3rd Leads 30,000 including 20,000 from the New Model Army to victory against Charles II
1651
Parliament
Cromwell, Oliver
 Sep 17th Dissolution of the "Rump Parliament" is debated by a committe set up for the purpose
1651
Reform
Cromwell, Oliver
 Oct 9th Anti-Dutch Legislation forbids importation by by Dutch shipping
1651
Constitution
Cromwell, Oliver
 Dec Decides it is necessary for a "settlement of the nation" & a Constitution
1652
Rebellion
Cromwell, Oliver
  Suppresses the Irish rebellion
1652
Siege of Dunettar
Cromwell, Oliver
  The final capitulation of the scattered Royalist strongholds
1652
Legislation
Cromwell, Oliver
 Feb The Act of Indemnity, for acts of treason before the battle of Worcester
 Feb The Act of Indemnity, for acts of treason before the battle of Worcester
1652
Pardon
Cromwell, Oliver
 Feb The Act of Indemnity, for acts of treason before the battle of Worcester
1652
Reform
Cromwell, Oliver
 April 29th Votes for the preservation of the tithe
 Aug Anti-English are liable to lose land & be deported
 Aug Irishmen who have killed an Englishman except in war will be executed & lose estates
 Aug The Act of Settlement is passed
1652
Hyde Park
Cromwell, Oliver
 Dec 1st Cromwell sells Hyde Park to 3 buyes for 17,000, an entrance fee is required
1653
Constitution
Cromwell, Oliver
  After the dissolution of the Barebone's Parliament, John Lambert puts forward a new Constitution known as the Instrument of Government, closely modelled on the Heads of Proposals, it makes Cromwell Lord Protector for life
1653
Instrument of Government
Cromwell, Oliver
  After the dissolution of the Barebone's Parliament, John Lambert puts forward a new Constitution known as the Instrument of Government, closely modelled on the Heads of Proposals, it makes Cromwell Lord Protector for life
1653
Parliament
Cromwell, Oliver
  The Rump Parliament is replaced by a Puritan Parliament
  Calls a Puritan Convention which is nicknamed the Barebones Parliament
  Dissolves the Rump Parliament
1653
Rump Parliament
Cromwell, Oliver
  Oliver Cromwell forcibly disbands the Rump when it seems they might disband his expensive army of 50,000 men
1653
Constitution
Cromwell, Oliver
 April 19th Cromwell holds a Conference to discuss a new provisional Government
1653
Provisional Government
Cromwell, Oliver
 April 19th Cromwell holds a Conference to discuss a new provisional Government
1653
Constitution
Cromwell, Oliver
 April 20th The Council of State is dissolved, the army is left in power
1653
Council of State
Cromwell, Oliver
 April 20th The Council of State is dissolved, the army is left in power
1653
Parliament
Cromwell, Oliver
 April 20th Enters the Commons & forcefully expels the Rump Parliament
 Dec 12th The Barebones Parliament is forcefully dissolved
1653
Constitution
Cromwell, Oliver
 Dec 16th As Protector, Cromwell has the power to call and dissolve parliaments but is obliged under the Instrument of Government to seek the majority vote of a Council of State
 Dec 16th Cromwell accepts the position of Lord Protector
1653
Instrument of Government
Cromwell, Oliver
 Dec 16th As Protector, Cromwell has the power to call and dissolve parliaments but is obliged under the Instrument of Government to seek the majority vote of a Council of State
1653
Lord Protector
Cromwell, Oliver
 Dec 16th Appointed Lord Protector
 Dec 16th As Protector, Cromwell has the power to call and dissolve parliaments but is obliged under the Instrument of Government to seek the majority vote of a Council of State
 Dec 16th Cromwell signs his name 'Oliver P', standing for Oliver Protector - in a similar style to that used by English monarchs - and it soon becomes the norm for others to address him as "Your highness"
1654
Diplomacy
Cromwell, Oliver
  Appoints Cornelius Vermuyden for an Alliance with the Dutch & divide the world
1654
Lord Protector
Cromwell, Oliver
  Appointed Lord Protector in the Court of Chancery, Westminster Hall
1654
Parliament
Cromwell, Oliver
 Sep The Proctorate Parliament meets for the 1st time
 Sep 3rd Cromwell stresses the quest to restore order in his speech to the first Protectorate parliament at its inaugural meeting
1654
Constitution
Cromwell, Oliver
 Nov 18th Calls sovereignty, "a feather in the hat"
1654
Diplomacy
Cromwell, Oliver
 Nov 18th Hosts a Conference with the Dutch but fails to gain union between the 2 countries
1655
Capture of West Indies
Cromwell, Oliver
  Captures the West Indies from Spain
1655
Constitution
Cromwell, Oliver
  Begins the Major-Generals' military rule in districts throughout England
  The 15 major generals and deputy major generals - called "godly governors" - are central not only to national security, but Cromwell's crusade to reform the nation's morals
  The generals not only supervise militia forces and security commissions, but collect taxes and ensure support for the Government in the English and Welsh provinces
1655
Diplomacy
Cromwell, Oliver
  Agrees a commercial treaty with France
  A secret clause with France provides for expulsion of Charles II from France
  A secret clause with France provides for expulsion of Condean insurgents from England
  England & France agree not to help rebels in the other's country
  The Spanish King orders withdrawal of his Ambassador after Cromwell invades Jamaica
1655
Invasion of Jamaica
Cromwell, Oliver
  The Spanish King orders withdrawal of his Ambassador after Cromwell invades Jamaica
1655
Launch
Cromwell, Oliver
  Launches the 1,000 to warship Naseby
1655
Navy
Cromwell, Oliver
  Throughout the Interegnum there will be 5 warships pa, an unprecedented number
1655
Parliament
Cromwell, Oliver
  Dissolves Parliament & places ten major generals over ten districts of England
1655
Rebellion
Cromwell, Oliver
  Cromwell suppresses the Penruddock Rising
1655
Taxation
Cromwell, Oliver
  A tithe of 10% of Royalist income to pay militias to keep down royalist insurrection
1655
Parliament
Cromwell, Oliver
 Jan The Proctorate Parliament is dissolved after 5 months
 Jan 22nd Parliament worked on a radical programme of Constitutional reform but rather than oppose Parliament Cromwell dissolves it
1655
Constitution
Cromwell, Oliver
 Mar After a royalist uprising in March 1655, led by Sir John Penruddock, Cromwell (influenced by Lambert) divided England into military districts ruled by Army Major-Generals who answered only to him.
1655
Rebellion
Cromwell, Oliver
 Mar After a royalist uprising in March 1655, led by Sir John Penruddock, Cromwell (influenced by Lambert) divided England into military districts ruled by Army Major-Generals who answered only to him.
1655
Mobilization
Cromwell, Oliver
 Aug 9th Orders Major-Generals be appointed to control local militias
1655
Reform
Cromwell, Oliver
 Aug 9th Orders Major-Generals be appointed to control local militias
1656
Declaration of War
Cromwell, Oliver
  Declares War against Spain
1656
Diplomacy
Cromwell, Oliver
  Portugal ratifies a commercial treaty with England
1656
Plot
Cromwell, Oliver
  Charles II offers a knighthood & 500 pension pa to anyone who would kill Cromwell
1656
Parliament
Cromwell, Oliver
 Sep 17th The 2nd Proctorate Parliament opens
1657
Capture of Dunkirk
Cromwell, Oliver
  It is agreed France will capture Gravelines & England will capture Dunkirk & Mardyck
1657
Capture of Gravelines
Cromwell, Oliver
  It is agreed France will capture Gravelines & England will capture Dunkirk & Mardyck
1657
Capture of Mardyck
Cromwell, Oliver
  It is agreed France will capture Gravelines & England will capture Dunkirk & Mardyck
1657
Diplomacy
Cromwell, Oliver
  Signs a treaty of Alliance with France
  England will provide a fleet & 6,000 men & France 20,000 men against Spain in Flanders
1657
Constitution
Cromwell, Oliver
 Mar Cromwell is offered the crown by Parliament as part of a revised Constitutional settlement, presenting him with a dilemma, since he had been "instrumental" in abolishing the monarchy, Cromwell agonises for six weeks over the offer
 April 13th Makes clear that God's providence had spoken against his office of king, "I would not seek to set up that which Providence hath destroyed and laid in the dust, and I would not build Jericho again"
1657
Humble Petition
Cromwell, Oliver
 May 8th Cromwell rejects the Humble Petition
1657
Kingship
Cromwell, Oliver
 May 8th Cromwell rejects the offer of the Kingship
1657
Succession
Cromwell, Oliver
 May 8th Cromwell rejects the offer of the Kingship
 May 8th Announces he will not accept the title of King
1657
Investiture
Cromwell, Oliver
 May 25th Agrees to Parliaments proposal that he should be invested as Lord Protector
1657
Constitution
Cromwell, Oliver
 May 26th Cromwell is installed as Lord Protector under a new Constitution
1657
Investiture
Cromwell, Oliver
 June 26th Invested as Lord Protector in Westminster Hall, where Charles I was tried 8 yrs prior
1657
Lord Protector
Cromwell, Oliver
 June 26th Cromwell is ceremonially re-installed as Lord Protector (with greater powers than had previously been granted him under this title) at Westminster Hall, sitting upon King Edward's Chair which was specially moved from Westminster Abbey
1658
Diplomacy
Cromwell, Oliver
  Sends 6,000 Ironsides to join up with Turenne's army of 20,000
1658
Constitution
Cromwell, Oliver
 Mar 11th The Upper House will consist of 70 members nominated by Cromwell
1658
Reform
Cromwell, Oliver
 Mar 11th The Upper House will have 70 members nominated by Cromwell to balance the Commons
1658
Constitution
Cromwell, Oliver
 June 11th An Upper House is established by a Bill passed by Parliament
1658
Legislation
Cromwell, Oliver
 June 11th An Upper House is established by a Bill passed by Parliament
1658
Battle of Dunes, The
Cromwell, Oliver
 June 14th Victory for the French & English over the Spanish
1658
Capture of Dunkirk
Cromwell, Oliver
 June 14th Dunkirk is surrendered
 June 14th England captures Dunkirk from Spain
1658
Rule of Dunkirk
Cromwell, Oliver
 June 14th Dunkirk remains in English hands until Charles II sells it to Louis XIV in 1662
1658
Death
Cromwell, Oliver
 Sep 3rd Death of Oliver Cromwell
 Sep 3rd Death of Oliver Cromwell, during a bout of malarial fever
1658
Burial
Cromwell, Oliver
 Oct 18th Lying-in-State from 18 October to 10 November at Somerset House
 Oct 18th Lying-in-State with an effigy, imitating the tradition of Kings
 Jan 29th Dragged through London, hung at Tyburn & buried beneath the gallows
 Jan 29th Exhumed at Westminster Abbey
1660
Exhumation
Cromwell, Oliver
 Jan 29th Exhumed at Westminster Abbey
1875
Statue
Cromwell, Oliver
  A statue in honour of Cromwell is unveiled
 Sep 3rd A statue in honour of Cromwell is unveiled opposite the Houses of Parliament
  A statues in honour of Oliver Cromwell is unveiled at St Ives

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