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Aethelwulf
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The World History Database

The World History Database

Diplomacy
History of England


0786
Diplomacy
Offa
  Holds the only council in the Anglo-Saxon period to be attended by papal legates
  The Pope recognizes Offa as the "King of the English"
  Charlamagne closes Frankish ports to English merchants
0853
Diplomacy
Alfred the Great
  Visits Rome & is honored by the Pope
  Visits Rome & is honored by the Pope
0855
Diplomacy
Aethelwulf
  1st recorded state visit of an English King to a Continental Court
  Visits Rome, taking the future King Alfred with him
  Visits the Court of Charles the Bald
  1st recorded state visit of an English King to a Continental Court
  Visits Rome, taking the future King Alfred with him
  Visits the Court of Charles the Bald
0991
Diplomacy
Ethelred II the Unready
  ’thelred signs a treaty with Duke Richard I of Normandy, by which each agrees not to aid the others enemies
1042
Diplomacy
Edward the Confessor
  Duke William of Normandy visits England
1172
Diplomacy
Henry II
  Forced to reconcile with the Pope of Eleanor's rebellion in Aquitaine
1189
Diplomacy
Richard I the Lionheart
 Dec 5th Restores Berwick & Roxburgh castles to Scotland, in return William pays 10,000 marks
 Dec 5th Renounces claims to Scotland & frees William from agreements made with Henry II
 June 24th The Kings of England & France, Phillip II, meet before embarking for Jerusalem
  Phillip II releases Richard from his obligation to marry his sister Alice
 Mar 4th Gives Tancred the sword of Arthur King of the Britains as a symbol of their Alliance
1193
Diplomacy
John
  Agrees with Philip II to marry his half-sister Alice
1198
Diplomacy
Eustace
  John refuses to recognize Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury
  Selected by Innocent III to urge John to recognize Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury
  The Pope prohibits the English clergy from taking the sacraments
1205
Diplomacy
Marshal, William
  Sent on a failed mission to do homage to Phiip II for John's lands in Normandy
1208
Diplomacy
John
 Mar 24th Opposes innocent III's nomination for the Archbishop of Canterbury
 Mar 24th The Pope forbids the English clergy to administer the sacraments
 Mar 4th Knights Alexander & renews his 1209 agreement with William of Scots
 May 15th The papal interdict of 1208 against England is lifted
 Mar 19th The Pope writes to John supporting in support of the Barons
 Mar 19th The Pope writes to the Barons asking them not to rebel
1223
Diplomacy
Henry III
  Louis VIII lays claim to the English throne & Henry's remaining lands in France
1234
Diplomacy
Edmund of Abingdon
  Mediates the peace between Henry III & Llywelyn the Prince of Gwynedd
1235
Diplomacy
Henry III
  Frederick II sends Henry III 3 leopards, kept in the Tower of London
 Aug 14th Meets Alexander II of the Scots at Newcastle & renews the truce of 1237
1244
Diplomacy
Richard of Cornwall
 Aug 14th Negotiates a truce between England & Scotland
1273
Diplomacy
Edward I
  Edward I is hosted by Gregory X & granted taxes from the clergy for the Crusades
  Meets Philip III & decides to settle relations with France & regulate Aquitaine
  Meets Philip III & decides to settle relations with France & regulate Aquitaine
  Philip pronounces a sentence of forfeiture on Edward I & takes possession of Gascony
 Jan Philip IV summons Edward I to Paris as his vassal, Edward sends Edmund of Lancaster
 May Philp IV declares that Edward I is a "contumacious vassal"
  Edward I & Philip IV reach an agreement at Montreuil-sur-Mer
  Edward I sends Langton to Clement V to discredit Robert Winchelsey
1305
Diplomacy
Langton, Walter de
  Edward I sends Langton to Clement V to discredit Robert Winchelsey
1305
Diplomacy
Winchelsey, Robert
  Edward I sends Langton to Clement V to discredit Robert Winchelsey
1327
Diplomacy
Edward III
  Recognizes Robert the Bruce as King of Scotland
  Edward's sister Joan marries Robert the Bruce's heir, David, at Berwick
1328
Diplomacy
Isabella
  Says Edward III will not do homage to the son of a Count, Philip of Valois
1334
Diplomacy
Edward III
  Philippe VI says peace in Aquitaine must include peace in Scotland
  Philippe VI announces that the English invasion of Scotland must stop
1445
Diplomacy
Stafford, Humphrey
  Represents the Crown during peace talks with the French in 1445 and 1446
1487
Diplomacy
Catherine of Aragon
  Interest in the marriage between Catherine of Aragon, aged 1, & Arthur 1st takes place
1487
Diplomacy
Henry VII
  Interest in the marriage between Catherine of Aragon & Arthur 1st takes place
 July Congratulates Ferdinand II on his success against the Moors
 July Hopes for "ties of blood" between England & Spain
 Mar 27th Henry VII is one of the first European monarchs to recognise the importance of the newly-united Spanish kingdom and concludes the treaty of Medina Del Campo in 1489, by which his son, Arthur Tudor, is married to Catherine of Aragon
1508
Diplomacy
Wolsey, Thomas
 April 2nd Visits James VI who refuses a treaty of friendship until Arran & Hamilton are released
1509
Diplomacy
Henry VIII
 Nov 1st Informs Ferdinand that Queen Catherine is pregnant
1511
Diplomacy
Talbot, George
  Appointed joint Ambassador with the Earl of Surrey to Julius II, with the object of concluding a 'holy league' against France
1512
Diplomacy
Boleyn, Thomas
  Sent as an Envoy to the Netherlands
1514
Diplomacy
Henry VIII
 May Pope Leo X sends an envoy to Henry to ask him to make peace with France
 July 30th Mary repudiates her marriage contract to the Prince of Castille during a ceremony
 Aug Louis proposes peace & signs a contract to marry Henry's sister Princess Mary
 Aug 7th France & England are officially at peace after a peace treaty is signed
 Aug 12th Reports the Anglo-French peace to the Pope
  Discussions begin to marry Princes Mary to her cousin Emperor Charles V
  Henry & Wolsey stage an ornate meeting with Francis, hailed 8th wonder of the World
1520
Diplomacy
Wolsey, Thomas
  Offrred the Bishopric of Bajadoz by Charles of Spain but refuses the offer
 Feb 25th Francis I appoints Wolsey as his procter to arrange his meeting with Henry VIII
1520
Diplomacy
Henry VIII
 May 26th Emperor Charles arrives in Dover & spends 3 days with Henry & Catherine in Canterbury
 May 26th Emperor Charles arrives in Dover & spends 3 days with Henry & Catherine in Canterbury
 May 31st Arrives in Calais to meet with Francois
1520
Diplomacy
More, Thomas
 May 31st Accompanies Henry VIII to Calais in preparation for a visit to meet Francis I
1520
Diplomacy
Wolsey, Thomas
 June 1st Arrives in Ardes near Calais to inform Francis I of Henry VIII's arrival
 June 6th Holds mass with the French Cardinal de Bourbon prior to the Field of the Cloth of Gold
1520
Diplomacy
Francis I
 June 7th Meets Henry VIII, the Feast of Corpus Christi
1520
Diplomacy
Henry VIII
 June 7th Meets Francis I, the Feast of Corpus Christi
 June 24th Says farewell to Francis I
 July Meets Francis I after the Field of Cloth of Gold between Calais & Gravelines
 July 10th Meets Emperor Charles V
 July 14th Henry VIII & Emperor Charles agree not to sign a new Alliance with France for 2 yrs
1521
Diplomacy
Boleyn, Thomas
  Involved in arrangements for the "Field of Cloth of Gold" meeting between Henry and the new French King Frances I
1521
Diplomacy
More, Thomas
  Accompanies Wolsey to Bruges
  Accompanies Wolsey to Calais
1521
Diplomacy
Wolsey, Thomas
 Aug 7th 1st session to negotiate peace with the French
1521
Diplomacy
Henry VIII
 Aug 25th Signs a secret treaty with Charles V to launch a "great enterprise" against France
  Vetoes a plan by Wolsey to attack French ports as too wrisky
1522
Diplomacy
Wolsey, Thomas
  Proposes a plan to attack French ports but this is vetoed by Henry VIII
1525
Diplomacy
Henry VIII
 Mar 9th Henry breaks off peace negotiations with France after Francis I's capture at Pavia
  After the treaty of Greenwich Henry VII & Francis I exchange orders of chivalry
1527
Diplomacy
Wolsey, Thomas
  Wolsey hosts a French delegation with great magnificence & expense
1527
Diplomacy
Henry VIII
 Feb Receives an embassy from Paris to discuss a "Treaty of Eternal Peace"
 April Arrangements are made for Princess Mary to marry Henry, Duke of Orleans
1527
Diplomacy
Guildford, Henry
 May 4th In charge of the banquet to entertain the French embassy
1532
Diplomacy
Henry VIII
  Arranges a marriage with France to a relative of Clement VII to bargain with the Pope
  Henry renews the Anglo-French Alliance
 Dec Henry VIII & Anne Boleyn visit Francis I of France in Calais
  Pope Clement VII threatens excommunication, Henry recalls his envoys from Rome
  The Venetian Ambassador is not replaced for 50 yrs
  The Venetian Ambassador speaks "in a lewd fashion" about Henry, Council & is recalled
1533
Diplomacy
Cranmer, Thomas
 Mar 30th Cranmer is recognized by the Pope to placate Henry VIII but will not grant a divorce
1533
Diplomacy
Boleyn, Thomas
 Sep 1st Arranges a meeting between Henry VIII & Francis I at Boulougne
1536
Diplomacy
Henry VIII
  Parliament completes the break with Rome
1540
Diplomacy
Cromwell, Thomas
  Henry's marriage to Anne of Cleves is used to protect England from France & Spain
1540
Diplomacy
Henry VIII
 Jan 6th Cromwell recommends an Alliance with German Protestants against the Holy Roman Empire
  Wants to meet James IV but James does not appear & Henry claims the Scottish theone
  Agrees for Prince Edward to marry Mary Queen of Scots
  Releases Angus & 10 Lords captured at Solway Moss to secure a Scottish Alliance
 Dec 11th Scotland reverts to pro-French & Catholic policies after the escape of Cardinal Beaton
  Charles V comes to terms with Francis I without consulting his English ally
1547
Diplomacy
Tunstall, Cuthbert
  Sent by Somerset to waive differences if the Scots agree the treaty of Greenwich
1551
Diplomacy
Mary I
  Charles V of Spain threatens war if Mary cannot practise her Catholicism
1555
Diplomacy
Elizabeth I
  The King of Sweden sends his Ambassador to marry his son Eric to Elizabeth
  Elizabeth is visited by Count de Feria & says she will not be Spain's puppet
 Mar Philip II decides to marry Elizabeth of Valois rather than Elizabeth I
  Scottish Lords propose Alliance with England
  Scottish Lords want Arran to marry Elizabeth
  Scotland recognizes Elizabeth as Queen of England
  Pius IV sends an envoy to Elizabeth asking her to return to Catholicism
 June 22nd Receives the Spanish Ambassador, de Silva is on a mission to rally Catholic support
  Catherine de Medici tries to arrange a marriage between her son Charles IX & Elizabeth
  France warns England not to attack Scotland
 May A marriage to Archduke Charles would create an Alliance with Spain & the Empire
 July 27th Requests Ambassador Throckmorton threaten the Scots with war if Mary is not released
  Elizabeth siezes Spanish bullion
  Gold loaned to Spain by a Genoese merchant for Alva's troops is seized by Elizabeth
  Philip of Spain places an embargo on English goods, Elizabeth freezes Spanish assets
  The Pope declares Elizabeth to be a heretic & divests her of her divinity
 Feb 25th Pius V declares Elizabeth I a usurper
  The Spanish Ambassador is returned after a plot to install Mary on the throne
 Oct Accepts an invitation to become god-mother to a daughter of Charles IX
  Spain & England resume trade
 Sep The death of Charles IX throws Anglo-French relations into confusion
 Dec Elizabeth toys with Alencon's marriage negotiations to isolate Spain
  Ambassador de Mendoza fails to install Mary as Queen
  Ambassador de Mendoza returns to Spain after the Throckmorton
 May 30th It takes until May 30 for all of the Armada to leave port and, on the same day, Elizabeth's ambassador in the Netherlands, Dr Valentine Dale, meets Parma's representatives to begin peace negotiations
 July 17th Negotiations are abandoned
 July 19th Delayed by bad weather, the Armada is not sighted in England until July 19, when it appears off The Lizard in Cornwall, the news is conveyed to London by a sequence of beacons that had been constructed the length of the south coast of England
1591
Diplomacy
Devereux, Robert
  Commands a small force sent to France supporting Henry IV against the Catholic League
1616
Diplomacy
Raliegh, Walter
 Mar 20th Promises not to attack any Spannish possessions
1620
Diplomacy
James I
 Dec 24th Parliament attacks James I's pro-Spanish policy
1643
Diplomacy
Pym, John
  Invites the Scots Commissioners to London & agrees an Alliance
1647
Diplomacy
Charles I
  Offers to repeal all the penal laws if the Vatican assists him to victory
  Parliament discovers Charles' secret negotiations with Scotland
1654
Diplomacy
Cromwell, Oliver
  Appoints Cornelius Vermuyden for an Alliance with the Dutch & divide the world
 Nov 18th Hosts a Conference with the Dutch but fails to gain union between the 2 countries
  Agrees a commercial treaty with France
  A secret clause with France provides for expulsion of Charles II from France
  A secret clause with France provides for expulsion of Condean insurgents from England
  England & France agree not to help rebels in the other's country
  The Spanish King orders withdrawal of his Ambassador after Cromwell invades Jamaica
  Portugal ratifies a commercial treaty with England
  Signs a treaty of Alliance with France
  England will provide a fleet & 6,000 men & France 20,000 men against Spain in Flanders
  Sends 6,000 Ironsides to join up with Turenne's army of 20,000
1672
Diplomacy
Savile
  Speaks against the pro-French policy of the cabal
1674
Diplomacy
Osbourne, Thomas
  Ends the war with Holland & maintanes a friendly correspondence with William
1675
Diplomacy
Charles II
  Charles is promised a subsidy of œ100,000 to finance the Navy
  The secret Alliance between Charles II & Louis XIV is renewed
  Signs another secret treaty with France for a further three years
1677
Diplomacy
Osbourne, Thomas
  Effects the marriage between William & Mary that was the germ of the Revolution & the Act of Settlement
1703
Diplomacy
Methuen, John
  Negotiates a treaty to allow textiles into Portugal for low tariffs on port & wine
1709
Diplomacy
Churchill, John
  Talks with Louis XIV after French support for Charles of Austria as King of Spain

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