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The World History Database

The World History Database

Henry II
History of England


1133
Birth
Henry II
 Mar 5th Birth of Henry II, son of Geoffrey V of Anjou (Geoffrey Plantagenet, son of Fulk of Jerusalem), was Count of Anjou and Count of Maine
 Mar 5th Birth of Henry II, son of Matilda His mother, Empress Matilda, was a claimant to the English throne as the daughter of Henry I (1100-1135), son of William The Conqueror, Duke of Normandy
 Mar 5th His claim to the throne is strengthened by his descent from both the English Saxon kings and the kings of Scotland through his maternal grandmother Matilda of Scotland, whose father was Malcolm III of Scotland and whose mother was Margaret of Wessex
1142
Education
Henry II
  At the age of nine, Robert of Gloucester took him to England, where he received education from Master Matthew at Bristol, with the assistance of Adelard of Bath and possibly Geoffrey of Monmouth
  Returned to Normandy where his education was continued by William of Conches
1147
Invasion of England
Henry II
  Henry had accompanied Matilda on an invasion of England, it soon failed due to lack of preparation, but it made him determined that England was his mother's right, and so his own
1147
Succession
Henry II
  Henry had accompanied Matilda on an invasion of England, it soon failed due to lack of preparation, but it made him determined that England was his mother's right, and so his own
1149
Knighthood
Henry II
 May 22nd Knighted by King David I of Scotland, his great uncle, at Carlisle
1150
Rule of Normandy
Henry II
  Geoffrey of Anjou conquered Normandy and in 1150 invested Henry with the Duchy
1150
Succession
Henry II
  Succeeds as King of England
  Geoffrey of Anjou conquered Normandy and in 1150 invested Henry with the Duchy
1151
Death
Henry II
  Death of Geoffrey of Anjou, Henry II's father
1151
Succession
Henry II
  Succeeds as Count of Anjou
1152
Marriage
Henry II
 May 18th The wedding was "without the pomp or ceremony that befitted their rank," partly because only two months previously Eleanor's marriage to Louis VII of France had been annulled
 Dec 19th Marries Eleanor of Aquitaine, daughter of the late Duke of Aquitaine
 Dec 19th Given Aquitaine as part of the marriage dowry, remains English until 1452
 Dec 19th Henry II's marriage is celebrated in the Cathedral of Poitiers
1152
Rule of Aquitaine
Henry II
 Dec 19th Given Aquitaine as part of the marriage dowry, remains English until 1452
1153
Invasion of England
Henry II
  Henry moved quickly and within the year he had secured his right to succession via the treaty of Wallingford with Stephen of England
1153
Succession
Henry II
  Succeeds as King of England
  Succeeds as King of England, adopted as successor by Stephen
  Henry moved quickly and within the year he had secured his right to succession via the treaty of Wallingford with Stephen of England
1153
Treaty of Wallingford
Henry II
  Henry moved quickly and within the year he had secured his right to succession via the treaty of Wallingford with Stephen of England
1153
Treaty of Westminster
Henry II
  Stephen is allowed to keep the throne under the condition that Henry become his heir
1153
Invasion of England
Henry II
 Jan Early in January 1153, just months after his wedding, he crossed the Channel one more time, his fleet was 36 ships strong, transporting a force of 3,000 footmen and 140 horses
1153
Death
Henry II
 Aug 17th Death of Eustace, followed by reconcilliation between Stephen & Henry II
1153
Peace
Henry II
 Nov 6th Barons conclude peace, the treaty recognizes his succession to the English throne
1153
Succession
Henry II
 Nov 6th Stephen names Henry II as his successor
1153
Treaty of Winchester
Henry II
 Nov 6th Barons conclude peace, the treaty recognizes his succession to the English throne
 Nov 6th Eustace dies, Stephen loses interest in the succession & the treaty ends the war
1154
Parliament
Henry II
  Orders an early form of Parliament to open at Bermondsey Abbey
1154
Rule of Bordeaux
Henry II
  Bordeaux comes under English rule, 1154-1453
  Comes under English rule after Henry's marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine in 1152
1154
Rule of Ireland
Henry II
  Henry sent an embassy to the newly elected Pope Adrian IV. Led by Bishop Arnold of Lisieux, the group of clerics requested authorisation for Henry to invade Ireland
1154
Death
Henry II
 Oct 23rd Death of Stephen
1154
Succession
Henry II
 Oct 25th Succeeds as King of England
1154
Accession
Henry II
 Dec 19th Accedes to the throne upon the death of his second cousin, Stephen
1154
Coronation
Henry II
 Dec 19th Crowned in Westminster Abbey, "By The Grace Of God, Henry II, King Of England", thus the first to be crowned "King of England", as opposed to "King of the English"
 Dec 19th Henry used the title Rex Angliae, Dux Normaniae et Aquitaniae et Comes Andigaviae (King of England, Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, Count of Anjou)
 Dec 19th The 1st Angevin King
 Dec 19th The Count of Anjou, son of Matilda daughter of Henry I & Geoffrey Plantagenet
1154
Rex Angliae
Henry II
 Dec 19th Henry used the title Rex Angliae, Dux Normaniae et Aquitaniae et Comes Andigaviae (King of England, Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, Count of Anjou)
1155
Rule of Ireland
Henry II
  Pope Adrian IV issues a Papal Bull to Henry II granting his overlordshi of Ireland
1157
Restoration
Henry II
  Obtains the restoration of Northern Counties from Malcolm of Scotland
1157
Rule of Northern Counties
Henry II
  Obtains the restoration of Northern Counties from Malcolm of Scotland
1158
Charter
Henry II
  Norwich is granted its 1st charter
1158
Le Mans Cathedral
Henry II
  Dedicates the nave of the cathedral
1158
Succession
Henry II
 Nov 17th Henry II declares Mary of Scots Queen over England & Ireland
1159
Battle of Toulouse
Henry II
  Henry II is defeated
1159
Invasion of France
Henry II
  Becket leads an English invasion of Toulouse to assert Eleanor of Aquitaine's rights
1159
Siege of Toulouse
Henry II
  Becket leads an English invasion of Toulouse to assert Eleanor of Aquitaine's rights
  Henry II is defeated
1160
Battle of Vexin
Henry II
  Takes a strip of land between the Duchy of Normandy & the French Royal lands
1160
Capture of Vexin
Henry II
  Takes a strip of land between the Duchy of Normandy & the French Royal lands
1160
Rule of Vexin
Henry II
  Takes a strip of land between the Duchy of Normandy & the French Royal lands
1160
Treaty of Peace
Henry II
  Henry II & Louis VII agree an unsteady peace
1160
Marriage
Henry II
 Nov 2nd The marriage is orchestrated by Henry's father, Henry II, in order to gain control over Marguerite's dowry, the strategically vital castles of the Vexin region between Normandy & Paris
1162
Danelaw
Henry II
  Danegeld is collected for the last time
1163
Arrest
Henry II
  Rhys ap Gruffydd is imprisoned by Henry II
1163
Rebellion
Henry II
  Wales rebels against English rule, the rebellion is suppressed
1163
Council of Westminster
Henry II
 Oct 1st Claims power to punish criminal clerics after their conviction by Church orders
1163
Council of Woodstock
Henry II
 Oct 8th Thomas a Becket defeats Henry II's attempts to raise a land tax
1164
Constitution
Henry II
  The legal rights of the Church & State are codified at the Council of Clarendon
  The Constitutions of Clarendon place limitations on the clergy
1164
Council of Clarendon
Henry II
  The legal rights of the Church & State are codified at the Council of Clarendon
  The legal rights of the Church & State are codified at the Council of Clarendon
1164
Council of Northampton
Henry II
 Oct 8th Thomas Becket is accused of embezzlement & contempt of court
1164
Exile
Henry II
 Oct 8th Becket flees to Louis VII of France
1165
Capture of England
Henry II
  Captures Wales
1166
Assizes
Henry II
  Orders the creation of jails in all English counties at the Assize of Clarendon
1166
Papal Legate
Henry II
  Pope Alexander III appoints Thomas Beckett Papal legate against the will of Henry II
1166
Reform
Henry II
  Orders the creation of jails in all English counties at the Assize of Clarendon
  Issues the Assize of Clarendon, 22 articles setting au a jury system
1167
Marriage
Henry II
  Henry & Louis reconcile after betrothal of his son Richard to Louis' daughter Alice
1167
Treaty of Peace
Henry II
  Henry & Louis reconcile after betrothal of his son Richard to Louis' daughter Alice
1169
Rebellion
Henry II
  Norman-Welsh barons land at Wexford supporting Dermot of Leinster
1169
Rule of Anjou
Henry II
  Henry II inherits Anjou
1169
Rule of Normandy
Henry II
  Henry II inherits Normandy
1169
Succession
Henry II
  Richard will inherit Poitou & Geoffrey will inherit Brittany
  Henry II will inherit England, Normandy & Anjou
  Succeeds as King of England
1170
Assassination
Henry II
  Thomas Becket is murdered by four of Henry's knights
  Thomas Becket is murdered by 4 of Henry's knights
1170
Succession
Henry II
 June 14th Has his son Prince Henry crowned joint-king to ensure the succession
 June 14th Never ruled & not counted in the monarchs of England, known as Henry the Young King
1170
Exile
Henry II
 July Offers Becket the chance to return to England & recrown Prince Henry, Becket accepts
1170
Coronation
Henry II
 July 22nd Crowned by Archbishop Roger of York in violation of the rights of Thomas a Becket
 July 22nd Offers Becket the chance to return to England & recrown Prince Henry, Becket accepts
1171
Dublin Castle
Henry II
  Commences the construction of Dublin Castle
1171
Invasion of Ireland
Henry II
  Appoints his son John as Lord of Ireland to rule on his behalf
  Capture of southeastern Ireland
  Crosses to Ireland & forces Richard Strongbow to pay homage
  Invades Ireland with the full approval of the Pope & subjects it to his rule
1171
Rule of Ireland
Henry II
  All of the Normans, along with many Irish princes, took oaths of homage to Henry by November, and he left after six months, he never returned
  Crosses to Ireland & forces Richard Strongbow to pay homage
  Henry arrived from France with an army and declared himself "Lord of Ireland"
  Receives the feality of the Kings of Ireland
1171
Succession
Henry II
  Declares himself Lord of Ireland
1172
Assassination
Henry II
  Absolved of the murder of Thomas a Becket by Pope Alexander III
1172
Diplomacy
Henry II
  Forced to reconcile with the Pope of Eleanor's rebellion in Aquitaine
1172
Homage
Henry II
  Receives homage from the Irish
1172
Rebellion
Henry II
  Eleanor of Aquitaine raises a rebellion against her husband
1172
Reconcilliation
Henry II
  Absolved of the murder of Thomas a Becket by Pope Alexander III
1173
Arrest
Henry II
  Arrested when fleeing to Louis VII to hoin the rebellion against Henry II
1173
Canonization
Henry II
  Thomas a Becket is canonized
1173
Rule of Chinon
Henry II
  Gives Chinon to John in a marriage settlement, angers Henry & causes war with France
1173
Rule of Loudin
Henry II
  Gives Chinon to John in a marriage settlement, angers Henry & causes war with France
1173
Rule of Mirabeau
Henry II
  Gives Mirabeau to John in a marriage settlement, angers Henry & causes war with France
1173
Succession
Henry II
  Succeeds as King of England
1174
Assassination
Henry II
  Makes a public penance for Becket's murder
1174
Rebellion
Henry II
  Defeats the coalition of Prince Henry, Richard, Geoffrey & Eleanor
  Defeats the coalition of Prince Henry, Richard, Geoffrey & Eleanor
1174
Shrine
Henry II
  Becket's tomb becomes a shrine & place of pilgrimage
1174
Treaty of Falaise
Henry II
  William I agrees to Henry's terms for his release by becoming a vassal
1175
Invasion of Ireland
Henry II
  All the native Kings of Ireland are forced to pay homage to Henry II
1175
Rule of Ireland
Henry II
  Under the treaty of Windsor Rory O'Connor is recognized as King of Ireland
1175
Treaty of Windsor
Henry II
  Under the treaty of Windsor Rory O'Connor is recognized as King of Ireland
1176
Famine
Henry II
  Purchases large amounts of grain to relieve famine in Maine & Anjou
1177
Alliance
Henry II
  Creates an Alliance between Sicily & England
1177
Marriage
Henry II
  Creates an Alliance between Sicily & England
  Henry's daughter Joanna marries William II of Sicily
1177
Rule of Ireland
Henry II
  Names his youngest son, Prince John, as Lord of Ireland
1180
Economy
Henry II
  Henry II reforms the coinage
1180
Reform
Henry II
  Henry II reforms the coinage
1183
Death
Henry II
  Death of Henry, the "Young King"
1187
Birth
Henry II
  Birth of Arthur of Brittany, son of Geoffrey, 4th son of Henry II
1189
Death
Henry II
  Death of Henry II
1189
Invasion of Maine
Henry II
  Maine is invaded by Phillip II & Henry is forced to surrender
1189
Surrender
Henry II
  Maine is invaded by Phillip II & Henry is forced to surrender
1189
Invasion of Holy Land
Henry II
 Jan 21st Assembles troops for the 3rd Crusade
1189
Succession
Henry II
 July 4th Henry II agrees to make Richard his heir, arrange his marriage & pay 20,000 marks
 July 4th Succeeds as King of England
1189
Treaty of Colombieres
Henry II
 July 4th Henry II agrees to make Richard his heir, arrange his marriage & pay 20,000 marks
1189
Invasion of Maine
Henry II
 July 5th Goes to Chinon where he learns that his favorite son, John, has deserted him
1189
Burial
Henry II
 July 6th Buried in Fontevrault Abbey, France

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